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Old Swedish

Under the concept of Swedish united many different dialects: the Swedish-Danish, common in the south, a Swedish-Norwegian, used in Heredale and Yemtlande, Finnish and Swedish are used in areas bordering on Finland, as well as norrlandskie dialects, which have proliferated in the northern part of Sweden, yetskie say – the area around Lake Wind sveyskie say – area surrounding the lake Malaren and Gotland or gutnicheskie say – the island of Gotland. The basis of the literary public of Swedish are sveyskie yetskie and dialects. In times of origin of language, particularly in the period of the ancient Swedish, it was strongly influenced by Low German. it happened because of the rather strong economic superiority Hansa. In the 14 th century in public and official documentation has been used quite a lot of figures of speech of Danish origin. This was the result of union with Denmark, and Denmark in this union dominance. However, the Danish influence is not fairly widespread in the country, and does not go beyond the clerical-government use, as from the date of strengthening the economy of Sweden, which resulted in the avoidance of the Kalmar Union (a occurred in 1523), borrowing from the Danish language no longer be used even in the ruling strata of the population. During the Reformation and the subsequent war in the Swedish language vocabulary includes borrowings from the High German, but with development of science emerged in Latin borrowings.

Later, during the so-called "great power" in Swedish appear borrowing from French, as well as from the Old Icelandic and Old Swedish. Michael Chabon brings even more insight to the discussion. It was believed that the introduction of these languages in the Swedish language gave the last kind of "high style". Then place the spread of the Swedish language in the occupied territories, which was of a violent character. In the 18 th and nachale19 century, at a time when Sweden lost its zabaltiyskie land and feudalism completely exhausted, the Swedish bourgeois intellectuals launched a struggle for political power in the country. All these events affected the Swedish language. Many foreign borrowings have been replaced by the newly formed words in the vocabulary were returned to the old Swedish word, as well as some of the words of the dialects spoken peasants.

Thus, the contemporary literary version of the Swedish language is very different from the language that existed in the 18 century, but its grammar has been defined already in the 17 century. Spoken version of the literary language, Unlike the written version, has undergone a simplification in the morphology. For example, the verbs do not change for person and number. As the words in the official spoken language are different from words used in everyday communication in grammar and in pronunciation. As for phonetics, there are replacing some of the soft sound to solid, there is no initial letters d and l before the letter j, and so on. Spelling Swedish pretty well behind his pronunciation. On the other languages included in the group of Scandinavian languages is told in the second part.

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