However, this is not the soil. There are no nitrogen – the main food plant, it does not retained water, without which plant life is impossible. Nevertheless, it is the rock that lies beneath the soil, generates it. It is called the parent rock. Without a soil parent material can not be formed. As is the transformation of the parent rock loosened the soil? Soil formation takes place hidden from our eyes.
But the scientists were able to still solve some mysteries of soil formation. It was found that active pochvoobrazovatelyami primarily are invisible to the naked eye the smallest living organisms – bacteria. Under the microscope at high magnification, some of them are seen as dots, while others – the balls, and others – sticks, the fourth – commas, etc. Of course we know the natural history, that there are bacteria-enemy, they cause disease. But among the bacteria are also our friends.
Among them is innumerable army of bacteria – pochvoobrazovateley. Secretly, in secret, imperceptible, but everywhere, they continuously work for us for millions of years and turn loosened the parent rock into soil. Otmiraya, bacteria, enrich the soil with organic matter. Peregnivaya and accumulate in it, organic substances form nitrous food for green plants. In addition, the rot through the substance of dead bacteria, well hold water in the soil. Martin O’Malley addresses the importance of the matter here. Once the soil will retain moisture, it will be nitrous food plants – humus, the parent material becomes the property of fertility. Consequently, the rock turns into soil. Another group pochvoobrazovateley – this is very unusual plants – lichens. They resemble grayish brown and growths on the rocks. Lichens grow on bare rocks, even where no other plants can not live without. Otmiraya, they also enrich the parent rock with humus, and thus – with water and nitrous food. On soil prepared bacteria and lichen can already grow green plants – grasses, shrubs and trees. They are now here moisture, nitrous food. Root, and then otmiraya, green plants enrich themselves humus increasingly deep layers of bedrock that lies under the ground. With the advent of green plants in the soil soil-forming process is in full force. Green plants are extracted from soil minerals, and then make of them organic. On the other hand, the soil is decomposition of organic substances and their transformation into mineral and simpler in composition. This leads to further accumulation in the soil of nutrients and more further improves its fertility. The soil may be different animals live. A particularly important role in soil formation are earthworms. They dig deep burrows in which drags the leaves of plants. From this amount of humus in the soil increases. Moves on the worms and plant roots can easily penetrate the air and seeping rainwater. Long before the plow – this ancient tool of the farmer, the soil treated with worms. The soil continues handled by them today. Worms, like other animals, otmiraya, enrich the soil with humus, which improves its fertility. Education soil began only with the advent of living creatures on Earth. Since then, over millions of years, there is a continuous process of formation of soil. However, the transformation of rock into soil is simply too slow. For education in the nature of the soil layer thickness of two inches is required, according to calculations of scientists, two thousands of years. That's how long the process of formation of the soil!