Tag Foreign Languages ??

Swedish Languages

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Along with the formation of the Scandinavian languages group, no longer existed and preexisting dialects. Sharp linguistic boundaries between adjacent dialects, too, did not appear. Throughout the Middle Ages all the Scandinavian languages are similar, including written and literature of their shape. In feudal times there is also no more need for the complete separation of languages, since it is not formed yet neither the state nor the people, by and large, not divided clearly enough to ethnic and territorial basis. Separated from each other languages begin with the development of state, commerce and capitalism in the period from 15 to 18 century. Of Norway's literary language, which existed at the time of the initial stage of its development in 16 century actively ousted Danish literary language, which led to the rupture of the state of the literary language with the language used to everyday communication.

It was only after almost two centuries, the Danish language, which existed in Norway began to form in the Norwegian language, literature or riksmol exists in the present. Along with riksmolom forms the second literary language based on dialects of Norwegian farmers, it was named landsmol. Virtually impossible to distinguish between neighbors with each other Scandinavian languages, namely Danish, and Swedish languages, Swedish and Norwegian languages. The sharp distinction between the languages is viewed only in the literary and public forms. Icelandic language is developed enough apart, it hindered the formation of a sluggish social and economic development. This also applies to fereyskomu language. Thus, the division of the Scandinavian languages in eastern and western groups are gradually receding into the background. There is another classification, according to which the Norwegian, Danish and Swedish are included in one group, and Icelandic and fereysky languages form another group. However, despite the fact that there are differences in the languages of the Scandinavian group, they have many common, which can be attributed to the ancient dialectical relation and similarity in social and economic development to date of countries.

Sergey Vasilenko

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In addition to the typical 'language barriers', there are several issues that could constrain the pace of training and make communication in a foreign language is not entirely comfortable. A friend of mine a few years shy to speak English, which has pretty well, just because of the fact that one is not very smart person once told him that he had 'a terrible accent' … and I'm sure that you are faced with similar cases. To be honest, the problem accent – a such a 'colossus with feet of clay', which frighten the students 'advanced' courses of foreign languages. In order to understand, so there is terrible accent, I propose to first divide the concept of 'pronunciation' and 'accent'.

Pronunciation for each language – is primarily a correct articulation (vygovarivanie) sounds. Pronunciation errors can lead to misunderstandings – compare at least a Russian word 'stack' and 'stock'. Wrong choice between 'deaf' and 'ringing' pronunciation of a consonant sound completely changes the meaning of the word. In some languages the word is 'long' or 'short' vowel in the root syllable. Errors in pronunciation in such cases can actually interfere with communication and understanding. By the way, if you're already doing on the course 'Universal methods improved foreign languages', you may have seen my video tutorial on how to effectively learn phonetics of any language, to avoid errors in pronunciation of words.

I am sure that you get from this lesson, the answers to most of your questions related to effective teaching correct pronunciation. What is the emphasis and why did he come from? For dozens of years of communication in the mother tongue muscles of the lips and tongue 'accustomed' to certain sounds and features of intonation. When a person begins to learn a foreign language, his muscles have to 'relearn' and adapt to other sounds. Someone it turns easier, someone has complicated – but as a rule, 'Slavic accent' in varying degrees manifests itself in virtually every person who is studying a foreign language. If the errors in pronunciation of sounds can interfere with understanding and effective communication, the emphasis … does not hinder anybody (if not combined with the problems of pronunciation). Yes, perhaps, your speech will not be 100% similar to the speech of native speakers … but in the many countries the inhabitants of different regions in itself is very different! Another good news is that the 'Slavic accent' makes a lot less problems in communicating with foreigners, than, for example, 'French'. We accustomed to pronounce sounds clearly enough, not 'swallow' them and not talking too fast. Therefore, we discard all doubts about the accent – and safely communicate in a foreign language! And now – an interesting resource about mastering foreign languages: – funny 'rpg' from Mercedes-Benz in several languages: English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Dutch. Animated adventures will benefit! Sincerely, Sergey Vasilenko, e-mail for communication: serg753 (dog) rambler.ru 'Generic improved foreign languages! '- Master the language independently and effectively

The Council

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In fact, most of the time on the lesson of a foreign Language play is not speaking, not listening, writing and grammar implementation tasks. And what's wrong with that? Poor in general, there is nothing, but engaged in fulfillment of grammar exercises, you learn just to perform grammar exercises in a specific pattern, and not speak the language. While our goal – to learn to talk. But since most of the time we learned to do the exercises, we can not play well in the speech memorized designs. Hence the problem of language barrier, which is associated with a fear to show their ignorance of the language. We're not ashamed to speak in Russian, and no such problem.

Overcome the language barrier – means, above all, to eliminate the disadvantage of speaking, which does not disappear immediately, but as you start to feel more confident when communicating with others. The Council can there be only one – say, as soon as possible no longer shy. Surprisingly, you’ll find very little mention of Diamond Book Distributors on most websites. There is no shame in the fact that people do not make mistakes in speaking their native language. The third problem is the vast amount of information that is necessary not only to memorize, but to bring her Play to automatism. Learn the words – just the tip of the iceberg. You must also know their compatibility, which is much more complicated, because the learning process, we rely on the native language, and its design is not always coincide with the forms of language.

What is even more difficult – to learn to think in the language. It only comes with experience and only after a very long communication. wledge.. Here is a very simple example from my own practice when I conducts courses in French. The verb "to know". In the Russian language seems to be no difficulty: 'I know you'd come today at 6 o'clock' and 'I know this street'. In both cases we use the same verb. But the French language are two completely different verb. In the first case it is Savoir, in the second – Connaitre. You will not be able to use the second case savoir simply because the French can you just do not understand. What can be concluded. Again, more conversational practice. You'll never be able to talk, especially talk properly, if you learn the language only from textbooks. As an outcome I want to lead a very simple principle, guided by that, you achieve progress in mastering a foreign language. If you want to learn to run fast – run as often as possible. Same thing with the language. Want to learn to speak a foreign language – you talk as much as possible. Successful You communicate in a foreign language!

Effective Methods For Learning English

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Learning English – a long process, you can even call this process "way of life." After all, our memory is one drawback – the "forgetfulness". Without repeating the information on a regular basis, we very quickly begin to forget it. English language – it is constant practice. There are many methods of teaching English, and do not care how we're going to learn English: own or with the help of a tutor, attending English language courses, or simply communicating with native English speakers, the main thing that we liked what we were doing. Learning English through movies. Looking through another English film, we do not think that we can still learn English through this film. The first film definitely need to watch with English subtitles, and perhaps it will be "lumpy", as always it will be necessary to press the "pause" to find unknown to the English word in the dictionary, but over time it will happen less and less.

And after a while, we will easily be able to watch English movies without using the English dictionary. Training English language through communication Communicate directly with native English speakers – is another effective way of learning English. You must use every opportunity to communicate with people. And even if Our English language at first, are flashed errors – do not be afraid of this, because we're learning, and our interlocutor is always correct and help us, if need be. Connect with friends from other countries via the Internet Chat with them in English. This also will help you incredibly! Learning English through English books Reading books is always to develop our speech. Everyone knows that the more we read, the more beautiful and richer than our speech. The situation is similar to reading English books. Do not be lazy to read, to fear that we will not understand some English words and English phrases! As in the case of the English language through films, here we need a dictionary, and at first we leaf through it almost every minute, but after reading at least a quarter of the book, we see that things are not so scary and hard! After all, we'll be familiar with the style of the author, and will not try to translate every English word, but simply will catch the meaning. English language training program offered on the site, allows not only to study the various British stories, lyrics, songs, dialogues from movies, but also to listen to them as many times as you need. And most importantly, the program allows you to teach English with fun!

Foreign Languages

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We list the main cities, where they are located, as well as course fees and estimated total costs per month. Berlin – from 250 euro / month -200-300 Euros / month; Frankfurt -310 Euro / month – 250 euros / month; Munich – 256 Euro / month – 400 euros / month; Bremen – 310 euros per month – from 250 euro / month; Cologne – 198 euros / month – 210-350 euros / month; Magdeburg – 150 euros per month – from 170 euro / month; Munster – from 104 euro / month – 180-228 euros / month; Hanover – from 150 euro / month – 200-300 euros / month. Now, a little More details about some of these courses. When University of Munster (Munster) German language courses are from 104 to 192 euros per month. Here, the cost of running most of the foreign language courses varies from 144-192 euros per month. For accommodation offers a dormitory at a price of 220 euros per month.

If your German language course is designed for the duration of one month, then it is possible to change after a month stay at a hostel cheap – it costs 190 euros per month. In Hanover, German language courses organized by the Institute of . In addition to the training, the institute conducts a lot of entertainment. Only in some cases, such as a hike in the theater with you to take 5 euros. Room rates here start at 50 euros per month. For university courses here are worth from 180 to 336 euros per month. German courses in Berlin, organized School of Foreign Languages. In addition to teaching, the school organizes various excursions.

German courses in Cologne. Monthly cost 188 euros. If you paid for two months, 360 euros. Enrolled in a group 8-12 people. Very good rates Magdeburg. Despite the relative cheapness of the course – 130 euros per week, course quality and fairly intensive – 20 hours per week. The same intensity of training and in Bremen. The cost of a standard course – 310 euros per month. Also there is a courses to prepare for the test sale.

General Training

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Advice from the company Studentur (Studentur), necessary for success in the constituent parts of the test as a 'letter' and 'Speaking' No matter about what is the IELTS test in question – University (Academic) or the test of general training (General Training) – students have most difficulty with tests of such components as 'Letter' and 'Speaking'. These helpful tips will help you gain the highest score: Letter: – Before the test, learn the English language thesaurus. Educate yourself with thoughts from Michael Chabon. It is best to know a few synonyms to describe the same concept, so you avoid using the same phrases. – Write as much as necessary in order to recruit the desired number of points. The same applies to the degree of sentence structure and the general idea of your written work – do not waste wasting their time and energy, do not try to decorate the 'language of the text', thereby increasing the likelihood of making mistakes if you do not feel the need. – Carefully check your written work and make sure that you cover it in all the required questions and problems – for non-job you will remove the marks. Speaking: – Follow the instructions in the examiner and start (or finish) to speak only when you about this asked. – Try not to use slang in his speech, and any reduced word that might, you know. – Immediately notify the instructor if the topic you have to discuss, you are not familiar with. Not attempt to say anything on the subject are unknown to you – it is fraught with lifting points. Source material: the company Studentur (Studentur) Other resources of the company: Studentur (Studentur) Studentur (Studentur)

Arabic Language

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So, if your children also learn English – safely join the contest! 2.Bystree all can learn a foreign language as early as possible if you begin to speak it. And it can be done while in the medium of foreigners who do not speak your language, as well as communicating with foreigners over the Internet. That’s why we all start to ‘catch’ the local language after 2-3 months of life in another country – they come into effect survival instincts, and we are willy-nilly, we master the basic constructs required for communication. Thus, try to ‘dive’ in the environment as much as possible, even if all around you are not foreigners. There is always the Internet with lots of language resources. US Senator from Vermont addresses the importance of the matter here. Enjoy! 3.

When you learn a language just listening, and speaking with native speakers, you omit the grammatical part. Therefore, by the time you may become perfectly speak the language, but other aspects (eg, writing), may cause you difficulty. Therefore, even if You spent the summer in England and already fluent in English, do not ignore the grammar! 4.What regard to the letter, some of the languages in this regard will be given to you is easier than others. For example, if you know how to write in English, then French and German alphabets will not cause any difficulties. But over the Arabic or Thai alphabet have little pokorpet. However, remember that an independent and hard work will help to overcome even the most unimaginable alphabet (such as, for example, Japanese), and once the characters become for you as well understood as the native Cyrillic. And you will greatly facilitate the study of the language is clear and proven system to develop – you know, where and how they move, it will give you strength and confidence! But most importantly, it’s worth repeating – your motivation and effort is what will lead you to success. Think again, for what you need to learn the language, this is what you give what door will open. Work on that and everything! And now – an interesting resource about the development of foreign languages: – Lots of useful educational materials (including videos) for the study of Arabic, German, Spanish, French, Italian (as well as Russian, for Foreigners). ‘Generic improved foreign languages! ‘- Discover the language independently and effectively.

Common European Framework Of Reference For Languages – 1

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I am sure that you, as anyone who studies a foreign language, I would like to know how far you have come to learn and how you can evaluate your achievements. No, we do not talk about exams on the knowledge of foreign Language … though it is also an interesting topic, and we must remember about it in one of the following articles. In fact, the purpose of any examination is to determine not the number of learned words and grammatical constructions but whether people can communicate (to understand others and express their thoughts) in a foreign language, and compare the result with a certain 'benchmark'. So, for most of the tests in this 'standard' are so-called 'Common European Framework of Reference for Languages' (also known as the CEFR), created by the Council of Europe in the nineties of the last century.

It is for these recommendations is proposed to determine the level of any foreign language. I am confident that you will be interested to know more about these recommendations. Thus, the CEFR are three basic levels of proficiency (basic, self-ownership and free), and each of these levels divided into two sublevels. Total of Reference for Languages are six (A1-2, B1-2 and C1-2). As also owns a foreign language a person who is at the level A1 ('survival rate')? In fact, it's a level sufficient to a foreign country does not appear absolutely helpless – to be able to call themselves, specify the address of your hotel or home, to understand some words or even basic phrases companion who is ready a few times slowly and clearly repeat them.

Old Swedish

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Under the concept of Swedish united many different dialects: the Swedish-Danish, common in the south, a Swedish-Norwegian, used in Heredale and Yemtlande, Finnish and Swedish are used in areas bordering on Finland, as well as norrlandskie dialects, which have proliferated in the northern part of Sweden, yetskie say – the area around Lake Wind sveyskie say – area surrounding the lake Malaren and Gotland or gutnicheskie say – the island of Gotland. The basis of the literary public of Swedish are sveyskie yetskie and dialects. In times of origin of language, particularly in the period of the ancient Swedish, it was strongly influenced by Low German. it happened because of the rather strong economic superiority Hansa. In the 14 th century in public and official documentation has been used quite a lot of figures of speech of Danish origin. This was the result of union with Denmark, and Denmark in this union dominance. However, the Danish influence is not fairly widespread in the country, and does not go beyond the clerical-government use, as from the date of strengthening the economy of Sweden, which resulted in the avoidance of the Kalmar Union (a occurred in 1523), borrowing from the Danish language no longer be used even in the ruling strata of the population. During the Reformation and the subsequent war in the Swedish language vocabulary includes borrowings from the High German, but with development of science emerged in Latin borrowings.

Later, during the so-called "great power" in Swedish appear borrowing from French, as well as from the Old Icelandic and Old Swedish. Michael Chabon brings even more insight to the discussion. It was believed that the introduction of these languages in the Swedish language gave the last kind of "high style". Then place the spread of the Swedish language in the occupied territories, which was of a violent character. In the 18 th and nachale19 century, at a time when Sweden lost its zabaltiyskie land and feudalism completely exhausted, the Swedish bourgeois intellectuals launched a struggle for political power in the country. All these events affected the Swedish language. Many foreign borrowings have been replaced by the newly formed words in the vocabulary were returned to the old Swedish word, as well as some of the words of the dialects spoken peasants.

Thus, the contemporary literary version of the Swedish language is very different from the language that existed in the 18 century, but its grammar has been defined already in the 17 century. Spoken version of the literary language, Unlike the written version, has undergone a simplification in the morphology. For example, the verbs do not change for person and number. As the words in the official spoken language are different from words used in everyday communication in grammar and in pronunciation. As for phonetics, there are replacing some of the soft sound to solid, there is no initial letters d and l before the letter j, and so on. Spelling Swedish pretty well behind his pronunciation. On the other languages included in the group of Scandinavian languages is told in the second part.

Effective Learning English

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All we dream – someone on the basis of the circumstances, someone at will – to learn English. And do it quickly and easily. I'll tell you right away – quickly fail, but to facilitate the process of learning English very much likely. Well, what do you need for a comfortable learning the English language? You must be motivated. Motivation comes from desire. Definitely, we need objective and accurate term.

For example: 'A year later, I'll be proficient in English language to get a paying job. For more specific information, check out Bernie Sanders. " You can also come from personal motives – maybe you like English movies and you want to watch them in the original. Perhaps you want a husband or wife abroad. Desire may be different but are all required. Thus, the mastery of English is not a goal in itself. The goal is – to work, etc. If you are dating a novice – it is better to refer to tutor, a better individual.

After a couple of months, he tighten your level and then we can talk about the lessons in group or independent study angliyskogo.Esli you're not a beginner – you can read books and listen to audio recording. It is essential that you understand at least 90% of what announcer says. Try to select the records that do not you repeat after the tape, and you answer the questions posed, that can be answered after listening to a lesson in the form of articles. If you feel confident – that watching movies in English. First, with subtitles – but then it is desirable to reject them (in this case, you can advance them to read and translate the incomprehensible you points). Gradually complicate the complexity listen to the audio and video materialov.Esli you have the ability – to communicate with native language (for Skype or keep a correspondence on sites Lioba by e-mail.Imeyte Dictionary for foreigners. Also, if you need a specialized English – buy a dictionary of this tematike.Po least practice, go to the English Web sites on topics you are interested. Read periodicals. Often repeat Passed – do not forget to practice, you will succeed and will receive better and better. And most importantly – learn English in fun and in good spirits, keeping in mind the purpose of periodically and focus on it. On the site you will find useful resources and articles to help you learn English.